“The conquest of the Arctic Ocean has lengthy been the dream of mankind. As far again because the sixteenth century courageous males felt the lure of the Polar areas. Many English sailors tried to succeed in the Pacific Ocean by a northern route. Their ships had been discovered gripped within the ice-fields past Northern Russia, with their crews mendacity frozen of their bunks. During the succeeding centuries scientific explorers studied the Arctic and Antarctic; however as but nobody had found the North-East Passage to the Pacific Ocean. ” (Shipping Wonders of the World)
In 1878 the Finnish-Swedish scientist Nordenskiold sailed from Tromsø to the Kara Sea and rounded Cape Chelyuskin by mid-August. At the tip of September his ship froze in ice close to the Chukotka Peninsula and his workforce was pressured to overwinter, lastly making it by way of the Bering Strait in summer season of 1879.
The Soviet Union started to defend home precedence within the Arctic on the daybreak of its existence: in 1923, the Soviet authorities introduced that every one the lands within the Soviet sector of the Arctic belong to the us. It grew to become crucial for the us to ascertain navigation on the so-called Northern Sea Route, the shortest route from Europe to the Far East, which runs by way of the seas of the Arctic Ocean.
The steamer A. Sibiryakov made the primary profitable crossing of the Northern Sea Route in a single navigation with out wintering. On June 28 1932, the ship sailed from the Russian port of Archangels, crossed the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea then the Chukchi Sea. A. Sibiryakov arrived within the Bering Strait in October 1932. This was considered a heroic feat of Soviet polar seamen and Chief of Expedition Otto Yuliyevich Schmidt and Captain Vladimir Voronin.
In 1933, Schmidt determined to show that alongside the Northern Sea Route not solely icebreaking and specifically ready vessels can cross, but in addition bizarre heavy bulk carriers.
The transport ship Lena was in-built Copenhagen in 1933 by Burmeister and Wain by order of the us. The steamer was then renamed Chelyuskin in honor of the well-known Russian explorer of the Arctic. The hull of the ship was bolstered for the voyage.
Heavily overloaded the ship left Murmansk on August 2, 1933. There had been cargoes for wintering the 111 folks onboard, prefabricated homes for a village on Wrangel Island, in addition to a seaplane for reconnaissance from the air.
Already on August 15, on the first critical encounter with heavy ice, the ship was broken. However, the expedition continued, and with out incident Chelyuskin reached the Chukchi Sea, the place it was sandwiched by perennial ice. Chelyuskin was unable to method the Wrangel Island, as deliberate. From mid-October to early November, the ship drifted in direction of the Bering Strait and reached it on November four. In truth, the Northern Sea Route has been coated.
On February 13 1934, a strong strain of ice pierced a crack a meter broad and 30 meters lengthy within the port facet. The ship was offloaded with out panic and deserted. Around 16:00, the Chelyuskin sank. 104 folks remained on the Arctic ice. The message in regards to the catastrophe was transmitted to the mainland by the radio operator.
In Moscow, a authorities fee was created to avoid wasting the Schmidt expedition. Under the circumstances, it was attainable to avoid wasting folks solely with the assistance of aviation. In an emergency, planes and essentially the most skilled pilots had been flown to Chukotka.
It was in March, three weeks after the sinking of the Chelyuskin, that the miracle occurred. The world’s first air rescue efficiently began. In April of the identical yr all crew members, scientists and passengers had been rescued and flown to the village of Vankarem on the coast of the ocean. From there, some had been flown additional to the village of Uelen, whereas fifty-three males walked over 300 miles to get there.
The historical past of Chelyuskin and the salvation of its crew shocked the entire world. The salvation in polar…

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