Some high-tech safety features meant to guard U.S. energy crops from bodily assault will not be as efficient nearly as good old style fences and concrete, in accordance with a Georgia Institute of Technology graduate who modeled safety measures in a pc simulation whereas incomes her PhD in Public Policy.
Jenna McGrath, who graduated in December 2018, revealed the outcomes of her evaluation in a particular problem on “Resilient Infrastructure Systems” for the peer-reviewed journal Infrastructures in November 2018.
McGrath discovered that putting in bodily limitations round substations and armoring transformers had been the simplest technique of lowering injury. Lights, sensors, and even easy measures like lowering foliage across the plant seem to have much less affect, she discovered.
“While the preventative measures being proposed by utility corporations and NERC [North American Electric Reliability Corp.] are general helpful in mitigating injury from assaults (each inside and outside the perimeter of the substation), the outcomes of this mannequin evaluation conclude that safety mitigation methods are only when centered on enhancing bodily limitations,” McGrath wrote.
Physical limitations, equivalent to extra perimeter and inside fencing, concrete barrier perimeter partitions, and particularly armored shielding round transformers are the methods that result in the best discount in damages from simulated assaults, McGrath famous.
To attain her conclusions, McGrath used a software program program known as Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS) to mannequin a sequence of more and more refined assaults on a mannequin substation.
She ran tons of of simulated assaults on the substation, discovering that beginner attackers with little coaching in weapons or techniques might, on common, injury 77.three% of the mannequin substation’s 20 transformers however destroy simply four.65% when solely fundamental safety measures had been in place. Such options embrace a chain-link perimeter fence and fundamental cameras. More refined attackers might destroy as many as 22% of the transformers on-site.
The highest degree of safety upgrades thought of by McGrath—daylight-quality lighting, eradicating vegetation, in depth bodily limitations, superior sensors, and a patrolling safety guard—decreased the injury to lower than one transformer broken and none destroyed by beginner attackers. Elite attackers, these with military-level abilities and explosives, broken solely 18.6% of the transformers however destroyed only one.5%.
McGrath discovered that armored shielding round transformers was the one only enchancment, adopted by a concrete wall and inside chain-link fence. Higher-tech choices equivalent to superior cameras, movement sensors woven into the fencing, and gunshot detection sensors had been subsequent on the record, however didn’t present as a lot profit because the bodily limitations.
“The outcomes had been shocking,” McGrath stated. “The mannequin confirmed that lots of the safety features I had anticipated would make a distinction truly didn’t have a lot of an affect on mitigating the damages from a bodily or cyber-enabled bodily assault, whatever the sophistication,” she stated.
McGrath notes that the outcomes are solely suggestive. Variations in topography, weapons, and attacker ability ranges all might result in totally different outcomes. The evaluation, she stated “gives one foundation, a place to begin, for choosing amongst selections.”
McGrath modeled her simulation after a 2013 assault on the Metcalf transmission substation close to San Jose, California, wherein unknown attackers reduce telephone traces to the station and used firearms to break 17 transformers. The assault was among the many catalysts that spurred the utility trade to think about the sort of safety enhancements McGrath studied.
McGrath started her inquiry into substation security whereas a fellow within the Sam Nunn Security Program, an initiative of the Sam Nunn School of…