Directional drilling has come a great distance since its origins. First directional drilling strategies have been arrange very early with the event of contemporary drilling earlier than the top of the 1800’s. As the drillers have been capable of drill deeper wells, downhole accidents akin to loosing a part of the drill string, turned pricey operations. It appeared extra economical to deviate the effectively from its pure vertical trajectory fairly than to maneuver the drilling rig and begin a brand new mission from scratch. Uncontrolled directional drilling began with the fundamental sidetrack method utilizing the primary directional downhole instrument – the whipstock. Whipstocks trimmed from hardwood spherical timbers have been used within the early days. More refined sorts, everlasting and retrievable, got here to the oilfield adopted by the knuckle joint.
The acid bottle method, developed within the late 1800s in South African diamond mines to survey boreholes, turned within the 1920s, the primary technique to be utilized solely for measuring inclination. A glass bottle stuffed with acid was lowered into the borehole the place the acid would settle at an angle within the bottle mendacity parallel to the angle of inclination. After a while, the acid etched the glass, which allowed calculation of the wellbore’s inclination at a given depth. In the 1920s, Totco developed the mechanical drift recorder, which may solely measure borehole inclination however was extra correct than the acid bottle and different early strategies.
In 1926, Sun Oil enlisted Sperry Corporation to make use of gyroscopic-based expertise to make survey devices for precisely measuring borehole inclination and course.
In 1929 H. John Eastman launched the primary magnetic single-shot and multi-shot devices, which measured each inclination and course. He was awarded a patent the next yr.
Records from two wells drilled in Huntington Beach, California, in 1930 are the primary data from directionally managed boreholes drilled from an onshore location to grease/gasoline deposits below the ocean.
But the necessity for managed directional drilling expertise got here to gentle in Conroe, about 40 miles north of Houston, in 1933.
A blowout occurred in a area owned by Humble Oil Company of Conroe. A gasoline kick from a high-pressure zone ignited, and all the rig was engulfed in flames. After many months and makes an attempt to convey the hearth below management, different close by rigs needed to be closed down and all the area was threatened. Although the hearth was ultimately put out, oil continued to circulation into the lake. The solely solution to handle this was to drill one other effectively to alleviate the strain.
On November 12, 1933, Eastman and firm arrived on location of Humble Oil & Refining’s aid effectively, roughly 400 ft from the crater lake. They set the primary whipstock at 1400 ft. The effectively efficiently deviated from vertical and reached the goal formation on January 7, 1934. Humble introduced in steam-powered pumps to flood the reservoir with brine, killing the effectively on the first try. Finally, almost a yr after the preliminary blowout of Madeley No.1, the Conroe Oilfield had been introduced again below management.
The Eastman Oil Well Surveying Co’s fame exploded after they efficiently killed the effectively. In the approaching a long time, Eastman can be immortalized as the daddy of directional drilling.
In 1930, a French inventor named René Moineau found the precept of the progressive cavity pump which led to the event of downhole optimistic displacement motors (PDMs). PDMs would ultimately change into the simplest and generally used deviation instruments within the trade. However, whipstocks would stay the first steering mechanism for directional drilling till the mid-1950s. The first trendy downhole drilling mud motors have been designed and manufactured by Dyna-Drill in 1958.
(Source: IADC/Ok. Grieser/AOGHS – Image: Conroe lake and E. John Eastman)
The publish CONROE 1934 –…