The Soviet RDS-220 hydrogen bomb also called Tsar Bomba was probably the most highly effective nuclear weapon ever created and examined. Tested on 30 October 1961 as an experimental verification of calculation ideas and multi-stage thermonuclear weapon designs, it additionally stays probably the most highly effective human-made explosive ever detonated up to now. The bomb was detonated 13,000 ft above the Sukhoy Nos cape of Severny Island, Novaya Zemlya, at 9.three miles from Mityushikha Bay, north of Matochkin Strait.
The Soviets efficiently examined their first atomic weapon on August 29, 1949, after which each superpowers upped the ante by working furiously to develop the much more highly effective thermonuclear weapons, or hydrogen bombs.
A crew of physicists led by Yuli Khariton designed Tsar Bomba. The crew additionally included Andrei Sakharov, Viktor Adamsky, Yuri Babayev, Yuri Smirnov, and Yuri Trutnev.
The Tsar Bomba was a three-stage hydrogen bomb with a Trutnev-Babaev second and third stage design. A 3-stage hydrogen bomb makes use of a fission-type atomic bomb as the primary stage to compress the thermonuclear second stage. The power produced from this explosion is then directed to compress the a lot bigger thermonuclear third stage. There is proof that Tsar Bomba utilized a number of third phases.
Tsar Bomba might have theoretically yielded as a lot as 100 megatons, however it might have resulted in a harmful degree of nuclear fallout (roughly 25% of all fallout produced for the reason that invention of nuclear weapons in 1945). Additionally, the supply airplane wouldn’t have had adequate time to retreat to a secure distance. Therefore, to attenuate nuclear fallout, the third stage included a lead tamper as a substitute of a uranium-238 fusion tamper. It has been speculated that the second stage used this methodology as effectively.
The uranium-238 fusion tamper drastically amplifies the response by fissioning uranium atoms with quick neutrons from the fusion response. Because quick fissioning was eradicated, thermonuclear fusion accounted for as a lot as 97% of the yield. Thus, regardless of its big yield, Tsar Bomba didn’t truly generate a lot nuclear fallout.
A Tu-95V Soviet lengthy vary bomber piloted by Major Andrei Durnovstev delivered Tsar Bomba in the course of the take a look at. The bomber was accompanied by a Tu-16 observer airplane that was liable for amassing air samples and filming the take a look at. A reflective white paint was used on the planes to attenuate thermal injury to their surfaces.
Tsar Bomba weighed 27 metric tons or 59,525 lbs. It was 26 toes in size and 6.9 toes in diameter. The bomb bay doorways and fuselage gasoline tanks have been faraway from the Tu-95V on account of its giant measurement. Tsar Bomba was hooked up to a parachute weighing almost 1,800 lbs., which offered the bomber and observer planes further time to fly roughly 30 miles away from floor zero previous to detonation. Despite the addition of reflective paint and the parachute, a 50/50 probability of survival was predicted for these on board.
On October 30, 1961, Tsar Bomba was detonated within the environment at 11:32 Moscow Time over the Mityushikha Bay Nuclear Testing Range within the northern Arctic Circle. The bomb was set by barometric sensors to detonate at 13,000 toes and was dropped from a top of 34,000 toes.
The Tsar Bomba yield was roughly 1,570 occasions extra highly effective than the yield of the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki mixed, and 10 occasions extra highly effective than all the standard weapons exploded throughout World War II. Tsar Bomba additionally represented 25% of the estimated yield of the Krakatoa volcanic eruption of 1883, and 10% of all nuclear assessments by this level.
The National WWII Museum stories what an eyewitness stated: “The clouds beneath the plane and within the distance have been lit up by the highly effective flash. The sea of sunshine unfold underneath the hatch and even clouds started to glow and have become clear. At that second, our plane emerged from between two cloud…

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